Dr. Arun Devaraj, senior research scientist with PNNL/EMSL, provided a presentation on the power/ many uses of microscopes.  The first book published was “Micrographia” in 1665.  Since that publication, researchers have found numerous ways to improve materials using the power of microscopes.  Changing the arrangements of atoms affects the way materials behave.  Blacksmiths learned that heating and cooling metal increased its strength.  As the power of microscopes improved, electronic microscopes through scanning and transmission provided 2D images never seen previously.   Today 3D chemical imaging enabled by multi-model analysis, provide an increased level of magnification and study.   In addition to microscopic imagery, his section is researching energy storage using Li-on batteries and atomic scale analysis of biomaterials.